Those are part of it as are government programs like the Manufacturing Institutes and programs at the National Labs. There are also a number of VC’s starting to specialize in specific kinds of technical risk. Right now, it’s all very nascent. Basically nothing existed before 2011, but now you see this stuff popping up everywhere.

I wrote about some of this in Harvard Business Review back in April, but am continuing to research and publish. You can find the article here:

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Bestselling Author of Cascades and Mapping Innovation, @HBR Contributor, - Learn more at — note: I use Amazon Affiliate links for books.

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